6 charts show how much more men make than women

Attendees cheer a speaker during the Women's March in Las Vegas, Nevada on January 21, 2018.

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Attendees cheer a speaker during the Women’s March in Las Vegas, Nevada on January 21, 2018.
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Sam Morris/Getty Images

Over half a century after the US passed the Equal Pay Act, American women still face a substantial gender wage gap across the spectrum.

Today, on average, a woman earns 80.5 cents for every dollar a man earns, and women’s median annual earnings are $10,086 less than men’s, according to data from the US Census Bureau.

While progress has been made toward pay parity between the sexes, the Institute for Women’s Policy Research estimates that it will not be reached until 2059.

The six charts below illustrate the significant pay discrepancies between men and women based on race, age, geographical location, and more.


The gender wage gap varies widely depending on the state

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Shayanne Gal/Business Insider

According to data from the US Census Bureau, the average gender pay gap in the United States is around 19.5%, meaning that, on average, a woman earns 80.5% less than her male counterpart. That gap can be larger or smaller depending on the state someone lives in.

In Louisiana, for instance, the gender pay gap is 30%, the biggest wage gap in the nation. Twenty-nine states in the country currently have gender pay gaps that are larger than the national average.

Most states have implemented laws against gender discrimination, and the 1964 Civil Rights Act protects women at the federal level. Yet disparities persist.

New York has the smallest pay gap at 11%, with full-time, year-round women over 25 there making a median salary of $47,358, while men make $53,124.


Cities show an even bigger discrepancy, especially for people of color

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Shayanne Gal/Business Insider

As Business Insider’s Leanna Garfield reported, salaries in 25 major US cities show an even greater range of pay discrepancy, particularly for women of color.

The data come from a recent report from the American Association of University Women, a nonprofit that advocates for gender equality.

Large disparities exist between men’s and women’s salaries in each of these cities, with the widest gaps appearing to exist between Hispanic women and white men. In Houston, Texas, Hispanic women earn around 35% of what white men make. Detroit, where Asian women tend to make 2% more than white men, is an outlier.

Out of the 25 metros, the narrowest gender wage gap overall is in Tampa, Florida, where women make approximately 89% of the median salary for men – higher than the national average.

That said, the ratios for Hispanic and black women there are 61% and 65%, respectively, compared to white men. And white women in Tampa earn 83% of white men’s salaries.


Overall, black and Hispanic women face the biggest pay gap when compared to white men

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Shayanne Gal/Business Insider

Black and Hispanic women are most affected by the wage gap, especially when compared to white men, who make up the largest demographic segment of the workforce.

Asian women face the smallest wage gap – they earn 87% of what white men earn, resulting in a pay gap of 13%. White women earn 79% of what white men do, while black women earn 63% and Hispanic women earn 54%.

When compared to black men, black women earn 87.5% of what black men do, and Hispanic women make 84% of what Hispanic men do.

The larger disparity betweenwhite men’s and women of color’s earnings could be attributed to the fact that “women of color suffer both because of their gender and their race,” according to an April 2016 report released by the Senate Joint Economic Committee’s Democratic Staff.


Women with children are penalized, while men with children are rewarded

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Shayanne Gal/Business Insider

Women with children often earn less after returning to the workforce, while the opposite is true for working fathers.

“Data suggest that women suffer a ‘mommy penalty’ after they have children,” the Senate report says.

This gap is slowly closing, as data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics show that women with children now make slightly more than women without kids under 18 at home, which wasn’t the case a year ago.

While this disparity can be attributed to differences in careers and work hours between men and women who have children and those who do not, the report says that there is also a difference in how working mothers and fathers are perceived by management.

Some employers may view motherhood as a “signal of lower levels of commitment and professional competence.” Working fathers, on the other hand, may be viewed as having “increased work commitment and stability.”

Men with children see an earnings boost, and the difference between their weekly take-home pay was on average $152 higher than their counterparts without kids in 2016.


Women’s earnings decrease with age while men’s keep increasing

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Shayanne Gal/Business Insider

Women over the age of 75 are almost twice as likely to live in poverty, according to the Senate report.

Many women that age didn’t work when they were younger, so they have fewer sources of retirement income than men their age.

In 1950, about 30% of women worked in the US, compared to 70% of men, according to the US Department of Labor.

By 1980, the numbers were 42.5% and 57.5% – and the numbers have largely plateaued since then. Today, about 57% of women are part of the workforce, compared to 69% of men.


The number of women promoted to the highest levels of companies reveals unconscious biases

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Shayanne Gal/Business Insider

Very few women are CEOs of major corporations, or in the C-level suite of executives running corporate America, Business Insider’s Rachel Gillett reported.

Data from a study put together by the McKinsey & Co. and Lean In show how men are promoted up, while women fall by the wayside.

They surveyed 132 companies employing more than 4.6 million people, and found only one in five C-level executives were women.

For every 100 women promoted to the manager level, another study found 130 men are promoted – even though women consistently ask for promotions and raises more. One of the reasons the McKinsey study found for this was because when women negotiate, people like them less for it.

According to the study, women who negotiate are more likely than men who negotiate to receive feedback that they are “intimidating,” “too aggressive,” or “bossy”.

Men usually don’t ask for raises or promotions because they’re already in roles they want making enough money, the study found.